Data-Rate Tables

DSx/Tx/Ex  -  North America, Europe & ROW, and Japan
Digital Signal  DS 
Level
Data Rate DS0 Multiple U.S. T-carrier Europe & ROW E-carrier Japan J-carrier
DS0 0 64 Kbps 1 - -  
DS1 1 1.544 Mbps 24 T-1 - J-1
-   2.048 Mbps 32 - E-1  
DS1c   3.152 Mbps 48 - -  
DS2 2 6.312 Mbps 96 T-2 - J-2
    7.786 Mbit/s 120     J-2 (alt)
-   8.448 Mbps 128 - E-2  
    32.064 Mbit/s 480     J-3
-   34.368 Mbps 512 - E-3  
DS3 3 44.736 Mbps 672 T-3 -  
    97.728 Mbit/s 1440     J-4
-   139.264 Mbps 2048 - E-4  
DS4/NA   139.264 Mbps 2176 - -  
DS4 4 274.176 Mbps 4032 - -  
DS5 5 400.352 Mbit/s 5760      
-   565.148 Mbps 4 E4 channels - E-5 J-5

  NOTE:  The orange cells designate the rates above T-3, E-3 etc - which are normally now on optical systems

 

Optical Signal Hierarchy

Hierarchy Data Rate SONET SDH OCx
Level Zero 155.52 STS-3 STM-1 OC-3
Level One 622.08 STS-12 STM-4 OC-12
Level Two 2488.32 Mbps STS-48 STM-16 OC-48
Level Three 9953.28 Mbps STS-192 STM-64 OC-192

 

OC  vs  STS  vs  STM  Data Rates
Optical Carrier Data Rate
(Line Rate)
Overhead Rate Payload-SONET (SPE)
(Data Rate - Overhead)
User Data Rate (Mbps) SONET
STS
(ANSI)
SDH
STM
(CCITT)
OC-1 51.84 Mbps 1.728 Mbps 50.112 Mbps 49.536 STS-1 --
OC-3 155.52 Mbps 5.184 Mbps 150.336 Mbps 148.608 STS-3 STM-1
OC-9 466.56 Mbps   451.044 Mbps 445.824 STS-9 STM-3
OC-12 622.08 Mbps 20.736 Mbps 601.344 Mbps 594.824 STS-12 STM-4
OC-18 933.12 Mbps   902.088 Mbps 891.648 STS-18 STM-6
OC-24 1244.16 Mbps   1202.784 Mbps 1188.864 STS-24 STM-8
OC-36 1866.24 Mbps   1804.176 Mbps 1783.296 STS-36 STM-12
OC-48 2488.32 Mbps 82.944 Mbps 2.4 Gbps 2377.728 STS-48 STM-16
OC-192 9953.28 Mbps 331.776 9.6 Gbps 9510.912 STS-192 STM-64
OC-768 40Gbit/s 1327.104 38.5 Gbps - STS-768 STM-256
OC-3072 160Gbit/s   - - STS-3072 STM-1024

STS-1  -  Synchronous Transport Signal 1: SONET over OC-1 optical fiber at 51.84 Mbps.

STS-n  -  Synchronous Transport Signal "n" : (where n is an integer) SONET standards for transmission over OC-n optical fiber by multiplexing "n" STS-1 frames, (e.g., STS-3 at 155.52 Mbps STS-12 at 622.08 Mbps and STS-48 at 2.488 Gbps).

STS-nc  -  Synchronous Transport Signal "n" concatenated: (where n is an integer) SONET standards for transmission over OC-n optical fiber by multiplexing "n" STS-1 frames, (e.g., STS-3 at 155.52 Mbps STS-12 at 622.08 Mbps and STS-48 at 2.488 Gbps but treating the information fields as a single concatenated payload).

STM  -  Synchronous Transfer Module: STM is a basic building block used for a synchronous multiplexing hierarchy defined by the CCITT/ITU-T. STM-1 operates at a rate of 155.52 Mbps (same as STS-3).

STM-1  -  Synchronous Transport Module 1: SDH standard for transmission over OC-3 optical fiber at 155.52 Mbps.

STM-n  -  Synchronous Transport Module "n" : (where n is an integer) SDH standards for transmission over optical fiber (OC-'n x 3) by multiplexing "n" STM-1 frames, (e.g., STM-4 at 622.08 Mbps and STM-16 at 2.488 Gbps).

STM-nc  -  Synchronous Transport Module "n" concatenated: (where n is an integer) SDH standards for transmission over optical fiber (OC-'n x 3) by multiplexing "n" STM-1 frames, (e.g., STM-4 at 622.08 Mbps and STM-16 at 2.488 Gbps, but treating the information fields as a single concatenated payload).

 

Virtual Tributaries and Virtual Containers

SDH/SONET defines a way or packaging capacity into Virtual Containers (VCs) which may be Higher Order Virtual Container (HVC) or Lower Order Virtual Containers (LVC). The term Tributary Unit (TU - used in RoW) or Virtual Tributary (VT - North America) describes a method of mapping PDH (e.g. T1) carriers onto SDH/SONET.

SONET SDH
Name Speed Name Speed
VT-1.5 1.728Mbit/s VC-11 1.728Mbit/s
VT-2 2.304Mbit/s VC-12 2.304Mbit/s
VT-3 3.456Mbit/s - -
VT-6 6.912Mbit/s VC-2 6.912Mbit/s
STS-1 50.112Mbit/s VC-3 48.960Mbit/s
STS-3 150.336Mbit/s VC-4 150.336Mbit/s

 

Common Data Rates

Technology Speed Physical Medium Application
GSM mobile telephone service 9.6 to 14.4 Kbps RF in space (wireless) Mobile telephone for business and personal use
High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data service (HSCSD) Up to 56 Kbps RF in space (wireless) Mobile telephone for business and personal use
Regular telephone service (POTS) Up to 56 Kbps twisted pair Home and small business access
Dedicated 56Kbps on frame relay 56 Kbps Various Business e-mail with fairly large file attachments
DS0 64 Kbps All The base signal on a channel in the set of Digital Signal levels
General Packet Radio System (GPRS) 56 to 114 Kbps RF in space (wireless) Mobile telephone for business and personal use
ISDN BRI: 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps
PRI: 23 (T-1) or 30 (E1) assignable 64-Kbps channels plus control channel; up to 1.544 Mbps (T-1) or 2.048 (E1)
BRI: Twisted-pair
PRI: T-1 or E1 line
BRI: Faster home and small business access
PRI: Medium and large enterprise access
IDSL 128 Kbps Twisted-pair Faster home and small business access
AppleTalk 230.4 Kbps Twisted pair Local area network for Apple devices; several networks can be bridged; non-Apple devices can also be connected
Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) 384 Kbps RF in space (wireless) Mobile telephone for business and personal use
satellite 400 Kbps (DirecPC and others) RF in space (wireless) Faster home and small enterprise access
frame relay 56 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps Twisted-pair or coaxial cable Large company backbone for LANs to ISP
ISP to Internet infrastructure
DS1/T-1 1.544 Mbps Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Large company to ISP
ISP to Internet infrastructure
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Up to 2 Mbps RF in space (wireless) Mobile telephone for business and personal use (available in 2002 or later)
E-carrier 2.048 Mbps Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber 32-channel European equivalent of T-1
T-1C (DS1C) 3.152 Mbps Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Large company to ISP
ISP to Internet infrastructure
IBM Token Ring/802.5 4 Mbps (also 16 Mbps) Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Second most commonly-used local area network after Ethernet
DS2/T-2 6.312 Mbps Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Large company to ISP
ISP to Internet infrastructure
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 512 Kbps to 8 Mbps Twisted-pair (used as a digital, broadband medium) Home, small business, and enterprise access using existing copper lines
E-2 8.448 Mbps Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Carries four multiplexed E-1 signals
cable modem ** 512 Kbps to 52 Mbps
(see "explanation" below)
Coaxial cable (usually uses Ethernet); in some systems, telephone used for upstream requests Home, business, school access
Ethernet 10 Mbps 10BASE-T (twisted-pair); 10BASE-2 or -5 (coaxial cable); 10BASE-F (optical fiber) Most popular business local area network (LAN)
IBM Token Ring/802.5 16 Mbps (also 4 Mbps) Twisted-pair, coaxial cable, or optical fiber Second most commonly-used local area network after Ethernet
E-3 34.368 Mbps Twisted-pair or optical fiber Carries 16 E-l signals
DS3/ T-3 44.736 Mbps Coaxial cable ISP to Internet infrastructure
Smaller links within Internet infrastructure
OC-1 51.84 Mbps Optical fiber ISP to Internet infrastructure
Smaller links within Internet infrastructure
High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) Up to 53 Mbps HSSI cable Between router hardware and WAN lines
Short-range (50 feet) interconnection between slower LAN devices and faster WAN lines
Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 100BASE-T (twisted pair); 100BASE-T (twisted pair); 100BASE-T (optical fiber) Workstations with 10 Mbps Ethernet cards can plug into a Fast Ethernet LAN
Fiber Distributed-Data Interface (FDDI) 100 Mbps Optical fiber Large, wide-range LAN usually in a large company or a larger ISP
T-3D (DS3D) 135 Mbps Optical fiber ISP to Internet infrastructure
Smaller links within Internet infrastructure
E-4 139.264 Mbps Optical fiber Carries 4 E3 channels
Up to 1,920 simultaneous voice conversations
OC-3/SDH 155.52 Mbps Optical fiber Large company backbone
Internet backbone
E-5 565.148 Mbps Optical fiber Carries 4 E4 channels
Up to 7,680 simultaneous voice conversations
OC-12/STM-4 622.08 Mbps Optical fiber Internet backbone
Gigabit Ethernet 1 Gbps Optical fiber (and "copper" up to 100 meters) Workstations/networks with 10/100 Mbps Ethernet plug into Gigabit Ethernet switches
OC-24 1.244 Gbps Optical fiber Internet backbone
SciNet 2.325 Gbps (15 OC-3 lines) Optical fiber Part of the vBNS backbone
OC-48/STM-16 2.488 Gbps Optical fiber Internet backbone
OC-192/STM-64 10 Gbps Optical fiber Backbone
OC-256 13.271 Gbps Optical fiber Backbone

** Cable modem note:  rhe upper limit of 52 Mbps on a cable is to an ISP, not currently to an individual PC. Most of today's PCs are limited to an internal design that can accomodate no more than 10 Mbps (although the PCI bus itself carries data at a faster speed). The 52 Mbps cable channel is subdivided among individual users. Obviously, the faster the channel, the fewer channels an ISP will require and the lower the cost to support an individual user.