UCS (Universal Character Set) - ISO 10646

- provides a unique number for every character - in all languages eventually -

- see also the Unicode page

 The international standard ISO 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS). UCS is a superset of all other character set standards. It guarantees round-trip compatibility to other character sets. If you convert any text string to UCS and then back to the original encoding, then no information will be lost.  The two common forms are UCS-2 (2 bytes) and UCS-4 (4 bytes).

UCS contains the characters required to represent practically all known languages. This includes not only the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Armenian, and Georgian scripts, but also Chinese, Japanese and Korean Han ideographs as well as scripts such as Hiragana, Katakana, Hangul, Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Thai, Lao, Khmer, Bopomofo, Tibetian, Runic, Ethiopic, Canadian Syllabics, Cherokee, Mongolian, Ogham, Myanmar, Sinhala, Thaana, Yi, and others. For scripts not yet covered, research on how to best encode them for computer usage is still going on and they will be added eventually. This includes not only Cuneiform, Hieroglyphs and various Indo-European languages, but even some selected artistic scripts such as Tolkien's Tengwar and Cirth. UCS also covers a large number of graphical, typographical, mathematical and scientific symbols, including those provided by TeX, Postscript, APL, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Macintosh, OCR fonts, as well as many word processing and publishing systems, and more are being added.

ISO 10646 defines formally a 31-bit character set - however, the base is 16-bits, and anything above that is used for special purposes.

Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) or Plane 0

The most commonly used characters, including all those found in older encoding standards, have been placed in one of the first 65534 positions (0x0000 to 0xFFFD). This 16-bit subset of UCS is called the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) or Plane 0. The characters that were later added outside the 16-bit BMP are mostly for specialist applications such as historic scripts and scientific notation. Current plans are that there will never be characters assigned outside the 21-bit code space from 0x000000 to 0x10FFFF, which covers a bit over one million potential future characters. The ISO 10646-1 standard was first published in 1993 and defines the architecture of the character set and the content of the BMP. A second part ISO 10646-2 was added in 2001 and defines characters encoded outside the BMP. New characters are still being added on a continuous basis, but the existing characters will not be changed any more and are stable.

UCS assigns to each character not only a code number but also an official name. A hexadecimal number that represents a UCS or Unicode value is commonly preceded by "U+" as in U+0041 for the character "Latin capital letter A". The UCS characters U+0000 to U+007F are identical to those in US-ASCII (ISO 646 IRV) and the range U+0000 to U+00FF is identical to ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1). The range U+E000 to U+F8FF and also larger ranges outside the BMP are reserved for private use. UCS also defines several methods for encoding a string of characters as a sequence of bytes, such as UTF-8 and UTF-16.

The full references for the two parts of the UCS standard are

International Standard ISO/IEC 10646-1 (Information technology -- Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS):

Combining Characters

Some code points in UCS have been assigned to combining characters. These are similar to the non-spacing accent keys on a typewriter. A combining character is not a full character by itself. It is an accent or other diacritical mark that is added to the previous character. This way, it is possible to place any accent on any character.

Combining characters follow the character which they modify. For example, the German umlaut character ("Latin capital letter A with diaeresis") can either be represented by the precomposed UCS code U+00C4, or alternatively by the combination of a normal "Latin capital letter A" followed by a "combining diaeresis": U+0041 U+0308. Several combining characters can be applied when it is necessary to stack multiple accents or add combining marks both above and below the base character. For example with the Thai script, up to two combining characters are needed on a single base character.

UCS Implementation Levels

Not all systems are expected to support all the advanced mechanisms of UCS such as combining characters. Therefore, ISO 10646 specifies the following three implementation levels:

Unicode vs ISO 10646 Level 3

They are basically the same.  All characters are at the same positions and have the same names in both standards.

However, Unicode defines much more semantics associated with some of the characters and is in general a better reference for high-quality typographic publishing systems. Unicode specifies algorithms for rendering presentation forms of some scripts (say Arabic), handling of bi-directional texts that mix for instance Latin and Hebrew, algorithms for sorting and string comparison, and much more.

The ISO 10646 standard on the other hand is not much more than a simple character set table, comparable to the well-known ISO 8859 standard. It specifies some terminology related to the standard, defines some encoding alternatives, and it contains specifications of how to use UCS in connection with other established ISO standards such as ISO 6429 and ISO 2022.

UTF-8

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html#ucs

Solves the UNIX and Linux problem of UCS interpretation of certain special characters (such as "/" which has a special meaning for Unix C functions).  UCS and Unicode are first of all just code tables that assign integer numbers to characters. There exist several alternatives for how a sequence of such characters or their respective integer values can be represented as a sequence of bytes. The two most obvious encodings store Unicode text as sequences of either 2 or 4 bytes sequences. The official terms for these encodings are UCS-2 and UCS-4 respectively. Unless otherwise specified, the most significant byte comes first in these (Bigendian convention). An ASCII or Latin-1 file can be transformed into a UCS-2 file by simply inserting a 0x00 byte in front of every ASCII byte. If we want to have a UCS-4 file, we have to insert three 0x00 bytes instead before every ASCII byte.

Using UCS-2 (or UCS-4) under Unix would lead to very severe problems. Strings with these encodings can contain as parts of many wide characters bytes like '\0' or '/' which have a special meaning in filenames and other C library function parameters. In addition, the majority of UNIX tools expects ASCII files and can't read 16-bit words as characters without major modifications. For these reasons, UCS-2 is not a suitable external encoding of Unicode in filenames, text files, environment variables, etc.

The UTF-8 encoding defined in ISO 10646-1:2000 Annex D and also described in RFC 2279 as well as section 3.8 of the Unicode 3.0 standard does not have these problems. It is clearly the way to go for using Unicode under Unix-style operating systems.

UTF-8 has the following properties:

The following byte sequences are used to represent a character. The sequence to be used depends on the Unicode number of the character:

 

U-00000000 - U-0000007F: 0xxxxxxx
U-00000080 - U-000007FF: 110xxxxx 10xxxxxx
U-00000800 - U-0000FFFF: 1110xxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx
U-00010000 - U-001FFFFF: 11110xxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx
U-00200000 - U-03FFFFFF: 111110xx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx
U-04000000 - U-7FFFFFFF: 1111110x 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx