$$$ standards search engines - global.ihs.com www.standardsmall.com)
Standards allow things to be trusted !! They allow things to work together with one another. Without standards, we could not count on anything in this world.
The number of standards groups (called "bodies") is staggering. Why, in the U.S. alone, it is estimated that there are hundreds of “traditional” SDO's (Standards Developing Organizations). The 20 largest SDOs produce 90% of the standards - and hundreds more “non-traditional” standards development bodies, such as consortia, pitch in with their own sets of standards.
There are literally millions of standards, which form the basis of product development. Standards are recorded and published for the world, so that products can be designed with interoperability in mind. The only way to be sure that a design will coexist with other systems, is to have a standard to follow. These pages discuss the most prevalent telecom standards as well a electrical and mechanical standards.
Working Together - this is the biggest challenge that faces the standards groups. If they all developed standards on theor own for the same technology (and this happens constantly) without deferring to the others, chaos would result. For example, you would have 20 differing standards on SONET. They must maintain close contact with one another and work together. The key is communication, cooperation, and partnering. For example, ANSI oversees hundreds of standards bodies to make sure that they do not all work on the same thing. Then it updates it's published standards if another standards organization, such as ISO, makes a parallel yet new change to that particular technology.
Major Standards Organizations
American National Standards Institute
11 W 42nd Street, 13th Floor
New York, NY
Federal Communications Commission
445 12th St SW
National Fire Protection Association
1 Batterymarch Park
PO Box 9101
American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Barr Harbour Drive
W Conshohocken, PA
Insulated Cable Engineers Association Inc
PO Box 440
S Yarmouth, Mass
National Research Council of Canada
Institute for Research in Construction
Bldg M-20, Montreal Rd Campus
Canada K1A 0R6
|Bellcore see Telcordia Technologies||IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
445 Hoes Ln
PO Box 1331
Piscataway, New Jersey
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
200 Constitution Ave NW
European Committee for Electromechanical Standardization
Rue de Stassart, 35
B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
International Organization for Standardization
1, rue de Varembe
Case Postale 56
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
Rural Utilities Services
14th and Independence Ave SW
Canadian Standards Association
178 Rexdale Blvd
Canada, M9W 1R3
(ITU-R, ITU-T, ITU-D)
*** formerly CCITT
International Telecommunications Union
Place des Nations
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
8 Corporate Pl # 3A 184
Piscataway, New Jersey
Electronics Industries Alliance
2500 Wilson Blvd
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
1300 N 17th St, Suite 1847
Telecommunications Industry Association
2500 Wilson Blvd, Suite 300
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 3460
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-3460
(301) 975-NIST (6478)
International Electrotechnical Commission
3, rue de Varembé
P.O. Box 131
CH - 1211 GENEVA 20
Phone: +41 22 919 02 11
http://www.iec.ch (ch = Swiss)
*** ANSI runs the IEC's U.S TC
(TC = Technical Committee)
Underwriters Laboratories Inc
333 Pfingsten Rd
Telecommunications Standards Inst.
for Telecommunications Industry
Unfortunately, many Standards Bodies have websites that insist on payment to download their standards - ANSI is one of them. But if you are tenacious enough, you can find many of the predominant standards papers. Here are a few excellent sources:
RFC's (Request For Comments) - managed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) - free with many sources to pull up the documents. However, there is only one complete RFC search engine: http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfcsearch.html . Most rfc sources on the web simply pull up the text file (all RFC's are text files) and that's it. However, many RFC's - in fact MOST RFC's - have been superceded, or "obsoleted", by a more recent RFC that provides more details or changes the RFC altogether. Many RFC's have a chain of several RFC's, each obsoletes the last one. There is one fantastic RFC search engine that allows you to search all the RFC's for any text string, and also lists all the related RFC's, including those that have superceded others, and the ones that have been superceded. For example:
|Number||Title||Author or Ed.||Date||Format||More Info (Obs&Upd)||Status|
||Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification||S. Deering, R. Hinden||December 1995||ASCII||Obsoleted by RFC2460||PROPOSED STANDARD|
IEEE 802.x (Ethernet) - free IEEE 802.x standards - all 802 (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) standards are in PDF's and are free from http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/
Freesoft - go to http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/ and click "Search".
ITU-T standards - you get 3 free downloads !! Just go to the ITU-T site, enter a standards document that you want, and you will be taken to their "Electronic Bookshop". There you will see an option to register as a new user and download 3 free standards documents.
DISA free standards site (summaries only !!) - this excellent (and rare) site is sponsored by DISA and is at http://comm.disa.mil/index.html - the "summaries" are often much more detailed than you might think. It is definitely worth a look.
Bellcore GR Standards (now maintained by Telecordia) - you have to pay for the full standards. But they have excellent summaries that are free and in most cases give you enough information to at leastr understand the basics of the standard. Visit their site at http://telecom-info.telcordia.com/site-cgi/ido/index.html for a summary and a Table of contents of all of their standards.
NOTE: Bellcore has changed its name to Telcordia Technologies and has changed some of the numbers of standards. Their standards are named as follows:
the first standard format is a TA (Technical Advisory)
this then becomes a TR (Technical Requirements)
the last stage is a GR (General Requirements)
Standards you must Purchase
This is terrible - to have to pay for these, especially at these outrageous prices ! ! As an example of how expensive these are - suppose you need the SONET standards from ANSI. As shown below - to get them all you're looking at about $1500 !!!
|Document #||Document Title||Price||Member Discount Available|
|ANSI T1.105.04-1995 (R2001)||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Data Communication Channel Protocol and Architectures||$96.00||No|
|ANSI T1.105.07-1996 (R2001)||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Sub-STS-1 Interface Rates and Formats Specification||$108.00||No|
|T1.105-2001||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Basic Description including Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats||$251.00||No|
|T1.105.01-2000||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Automatic Protection||$251.00||No|
|T1.105.02-2001||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Payload Mappings||$130.00||No|
|T1.105.03-2003||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Jitter and Wander at Network and Equipment Interfaces (Revision of T1.105.03-1994, T1.105.03a-1995, and T1.105.03b-1997)||$227.00||No|
|T1.105.05-2002||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET): Tandem Connection Maintenance (Revision of T1.105.05-1994)||$108.00||No|
|T1.105.06-2002||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET): Physical Layer Specifications [Revision, redesignation, and consolidation of T1.105.06-1996 and T1.117-1991 (R1997)]||$96.00||No|
|T1.105.07a-1998 (R2003)||Supplement ANSI T1.105.07a-1998||$25.00||No|
|T1.105.08-2001||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - In-band Forward Error Correction Code Specification||$96.00||No|
|T1.105.09-1996 (R2002)||Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Network Timing and Synchronization||$108.00||No|
http://www.iso.org (you can buy ISO standards at http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/ISOstore/store.html ). ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer of standards - principally in the development of technical standards. Their most famous standard, oddly enough, goes by the acronym "OSI" - the reverse of ISO. Short for Open System Interconnection, OSI is ISO standard for worldwide communications that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.
ISO is a non-governmental organization whose network of the national standards institutes includes 148 countries, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. Many of their standards were developed in concert with the IEC and are named as such - for example, ISO/IEC 23290:2004 - still others were published by ANSI, for example: ISO/IEC 15521:1998.
ISO Telecommunications standards - they are at the ISO store at http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueListPage.CatalogueList?ICS1=33&ICS2=&ICS3=&scopelist= - here is the list:
|33.020||Telecommunications in general Including infrastructure|
|33.030||Telecommunication services. Applications|
|Including supplementary services, service aspects and associated legal tracability aspects|
|33.040||Telecommunication systems Including network (system) aspects|
|33.050||Telecommunication terminal equipment|
|33.080||Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)|
|33.100||Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)|
|Including radio interference|
|33.120||Components and accessories for telecommunications equipment|
|Plug-and-socket devices, connectors, see 31.220.10|
|Switches, see 31.220.20|
|33.140||Special measuring equipment for use in telecommunications|
|33.160||Audio, video and audiovisual engineering|
|33.170||Television and radio broadcasting|
|Equipment for television and radio broadcasting, see 33.160|
|Stage and studio equipment, see 97.200.10|
|33.180||Fibre optic communications|
International Telecommunication Union
- The ITU, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland is an international organization
within the United Nations System where governments and the private sector
coordinate global telecom networks and services. There are three types of
NOTE: the ITU lists all prices for it's standards in "CHF", which is "Swiss Francs" - you can use this currency converterfrom XE.com. At this time (March 2005, 1 CHF = 85 cents ($0.85)
ITU-R - Radio (radio communication) - this division of the ITU has published critical standards such as the entire Frequency Spectrum assignments. The ITU-R Recommendations can be purchased on CDROM at http://www.itu.int/publications/main_publ/itur.html . Additionally many of the smaller sets of ITU-R documents can be purchased at http://www.itu.int/publibase/catalog/itupub.asp?Part=3.3
ITU-T - Telecom (telecom standardization) - created on 1 March 1993, the ITU-T replaced the former CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) whose origins go back to 1865. The entire set of ITU-T publications can be purchased on DVD at http://www.itu.int/publications/main_publ/itut.html
ITU-D - Development (telecom development) - rarely used by anyone, so we will not cover these standards here
SERIES OF ITU-T RECOMMENDATIONS
The CCITT and the subsequent ITU-T used letters to denote a number of "series", or categories of standards. You will often see these standards listed with a period after the letter of the series. For example, X.25 is a packet data communication protocol, and is from the "X series" (Data networks and open system communications), and V.32 is a modem standard from the "V series" (Data communication over the telephone network), etc
Corrigendum - many recommendations later are corrected or modified. This is called "erratum" by IEEE with their RFC's. But the ITU calls it "corrigendum".
A series - Organization of the work of ITU-T
B series - Means of expression: definitions, symbols, classification
C series - General telecommunication statistics
D series - General tariff principles
E series - Overall network operation, telephone service, service operation and human factors
F series - Non-telephone telecommunication services
G series - Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks
H series - Audiovisual and multimedia systems
I series -Integrated services digital network
J series - Transmission of television, sound programme and other multimedia signals
K series - Protection against interference
L series - Construction, installation and protection of cables and other elements of outside plant
M series - TMN and network maintenance: international transmission systems, telephone circuits, telegraphy, facsimile and leased circuits
N series - Maintenance: international sound programme and television transmission circuits
O series - Specifications of measuring equipment
P series - Telephone transmission quality, telephone installations, local line networks
Q series - Switching and signalling
R series - Telegraph transmission
S series - Telegraph services terminal equipment
T series - Terminals for telematic services
U series - Telegraph switching
V series - Data communication over the telephone network
X series - Data networks and open system communications
Y series - Global information infrastructure and Internet protocol aspects
Z series - Languages and general software aspects for telecommunication systems
CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) well-known Standards
Before becoming the ITU-T, the CCITT developed many standards and many of them are still referenced as "CCITT" standards. The more well-known CCITT standards, now adopted by the ITU-T, are the V. and X. standards, such as:
HomePage: www.ansi.org Standards Store: webstore.ansi.org
If you remember anything from these pages - remember ANSI !!! The ANSI Federation of is made up of nearly 1,000 U.S. businesses, professional societies and trade associations, standards developers, government agencies, institutes and consumer and labor interests. It accredits qualified organizations, whose standards development process meets all of ANSI’s requirements, to develop American National Standards. ANSI is not a government agency.
Conformity Assessment - All standards published by ANSI must first pass Conformity assessment, which is defined as any activity concerned with determining directly or indirectly that relevant requirements are fulfilled. (As defined in ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996)
ANSI is the standards body of standards bodies. It is the group that makes sure the standards bodies are . . . well, standard !! It is an overseer of standards bodies. ANSI is a private, non-profit organization - [ tax exempt via IRS code (501(c)3) ] that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. ANSI facilitates the development of American National Standards (ANS) by accrediting the procedures of standards developing organizations (SDOs). In order to maintain ANSI accreditation, standards developers are required to consistently adhere to a set of requirements or procedures known as the “ANSI Essential Requirements," that govern the consensus development process.
ANSI also is a publisher of thousands of standards - when a standard is created by a standards developer who works under the ANSI umbrella - it becomes an "ANSI Standard". There are three naming conventions for these standards is as follows - some include the acronym, "ANSI", while others do not:
ANSI C136.23-1995 - an IEEE standard published by ANSI
ANSI/IEEE C2-2002 - an IEEE standard published by ANSI
UL 38-2001 - an Underwriters Laboratories standard published by ANSI
ANS (American National Standards) - provide dimensions, ratings, terminology and symbols, test methods, and performance and safety requirements for personnel, products, systems and services in hundreds of industries. Many ANS documents make it clear how to improve the safety of products for the protection of consumers, including products such as baby cribs, bicycle helmets, home appliances, lawn mowers, ladders, etc. The ANS's are essential tools used in every industry. Today, there are more than 11,500 American National Standards that have been developed and approved in accordance with ANSI Procedures.
ANSI as a U.S. Representative to the International Standards Communities
ANSI is the official U.S. representative to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) via the U.S. National Committee (USNC).
Q: Does ANSI develop the U.S. position on ISO and IEC standards?
A: Yes and No. ANSI and its U.S. National Committee for the IEC (USNC) help to govern both organizations by serving on their respective governance bodies. ANSI accredits and the USNC approves U.S. Technical Advisory Groups (U.S. TAGs) to develop and transmit, via ANSI or the U.S. National Committee, U.S. positions on activities and ballots of the international technical committee.
The U.S. also helps to facilitate and direct the technical work by holding leadership positions on 30 ISO Technical Committees (TC), more than 100 Subcommittees (SC) and nearly 500 working groups. The U.S. holds leadership positions in nearly 40 IEC TCs and SCs, and is actively involved in more than 175 of its other committees.
Telecommunications Industry Association
TIA is the communications sector of EIA.
This site http://cablingdb.com is fantastic because it carries all the ANSI/TIA standards for free, and has the documents in their entirety !!! Here are the main categories of the standards they carry:
Cabling Glossary of Terms
ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B (twisted pair cabling, fiber, and the now famous Cat3, Cat5e and Cat6 cabling standards)
569 Pathways & Spaces
ANSI/TIA/EIA 570-A Residential Telecommunications
ANSI/TIA/EIA 598-A Fiber Optic Color Coding
ANSI/TIA/EIA 607 Grounding & Bonding
ANSI/TIA/EIA 758 Customer Owned Outside Plant
Many standards primarily include "interfaces", since that is the point where systems communicate. For example, the RS-232 standard discusses the way in which an external modem or other device, interfaces with a 9-pin (typically) serial port on a PC. The mode itself can be designed in many ways, so long as it's communication to the outside world strictly follows the RS-232 standard.
Here are the typical telecom standards that providers use to connect customers to their Networks. Of course, these are only typical, and the actual number of standards is diverse :
Twisted Pair (POTS)
T1, fract T1
T3, fract T3
|T3||HSSI or Coax BNC|
OC3 and up
Fiber ST, SC, etc.
Common LAN, Building, and Cabling Standards
EN 50173 Information Technology-Generic Cabling Systems
EN 50173 Amendment 1, 1996
EN 50174 Information Technology-Cabling Installation 2000
Application of Equipotential Bonding and Earthing in Buildings with
Information Technology Equipment 2000
CSA-C22.1-1998 Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, 1998
CSA-T525 Residential Wiring for Telecommunications
CSA-T527 Grounding and Bonding for Telecommunications in Commercial Buildings,1994, (harmonized with ANSI/TIA/EIA-607)
CSA-T528 Design Guidelines for Administration of Telecommunications Infrastructure in Commercial Buildings, 1993 (harmonized with ANSI/TIA/EIA-606)
CSA-T529 Design Guidelines for Telecommunications Wiring Systems in Commercial Buildings, 1995 (harmonized with ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A)
CSA-T530 Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces, 1999 (harmonized with ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A)
- Federal Communications Commission
FCC Part 15 Radiated Emission Limits, revised 1998
FCC Part 22 Public Mobile Services, revised 1998
FCC Part 68 Connection of Terminal Equipment to the Telephone Network, revised 1998.
76 Cable Television Service, revised 1998
Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)
The ICEA is an organization of cable manufacturers that is focussed on writing specifications for the telephone and power cable industries.
Some of the specifications that may be of interest are:
Telecommunications Cable for Outside Plant Applications
Wire and Cable for Premises Wiring
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc (IEEE)
The IEEE is heavily involved in writing standards and specifications. While all of their documents are important, only the ones directly related to telecommunications are listed here.
IEEE Standard 81-1983 IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System.
Standard 1934, High Performance Serial Bus (Fire Wire) to Provide High
Speed Communications for Digital Audio, Digital Voice, Signal Routing and
Project 802 was developed in order to produce standards for local and metropolitan area networks. The 802 standards are aimed at the Physical Layer of the 7 layer OSI model.
One of the main driving forces behind 802 was to have interoperability between hardware manufacturers and software producers, thus giving potential customers full choice in the products and software they purchase.
are many 802 projects and sub workgroups, the major projects are noted
IEEE 802.3-Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
This group is concerned with Physical and Data Link layer standards for LANs which use CSMA/CD access method and a bus topology. Examples of these LANs are Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet.
802.3x-Specification for full duplex operation
802.3y-Physical layer specifications for 100 Mbps operation over two pairs of Category 3 or higher twisted pair cable.
for 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) operation over fiber optic cable.
802.3ab-Specification for 1000 Mbps over four pairs of Category 5 or higher twisted pair cable.
802.3ac-Ethernet frame extensions for virtual local area networks (VLANs).
802.4 Token Bus Working Group
This work group is responsible for developing standards and practices for access control and physical signalling in a token bus network.
802.5 Token Ring Working Group
802.5r-Specifications for dedicated token ring (DTR) operation.
802.5t-Specifications for 100 Mbps high speed token ring operation over 2 pairs of copper cables.
802.5u-Specifications for 100 Mbps high speed token ring operation over fiber optic cable.
for 1000 Mbps token ring operation (Gigabit token ring).
IEEE 802.9 Integrated Services LAN (IS-LAN) Working Group
This working group develops standards and practices for access control and physical signalling when integrating voice, data, and video traffic on other 802 LANs.
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group
This working group develops standards and practices for access control and physical signalling in the wireless form of network communications.
802-11a-Specifications for high speed physical layer in the 5 GHz frequency band.
802.11b-Specifications for high speed physical layer extension in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.
IEEE 802.14 Cable Modem (Cable-TV) Working Group
This working group develops standards and practices for access control and physical signalling to be used on networks operating over cable TV infrastructures.
Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
These are the fire and safety codes produced by the NFPA that relate to telecommunications.
NFPA-70, National Electrical Code (NEC)
NFPA-70E, Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces.
Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Signalling Systems for Central
NFPA-75, Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment.
NFPA-101, Life Safety Code
NFPA-297, Guide on Priciples and Practices for Telecommunications Systems.
NFPA-780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems.
Research Council of Canada, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC)
Some of the standards produced by the NRC-IRC which are concerned with telecommunications are:
NRCC 30619, National Building Code of Canada, 1990
NRCC 30621, National Fire Code of Canada, 1990
NRCC 30629, Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada, 1990
555-400-021, A Guide to Premises Distribution, 1988
Industry Association/Electronic Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA)
is the most active in developing standards for the telecommunications
568B.1 General Requirements
ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces
ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A-1, Addendum 1, 2000. Replaces Section 4.7, Perimeter Pathways.
ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A-2, Addendum 2, 2000. Replaces Section 6.3.3, Furniture Pathways.
569-A-3, Addendum 3, 2000. Revision to Subclause 4.3, Access Floors.
ANSI/TIA/EIA 570-A, Residential Telecommunications Cabling Standard.
606, Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure
of Commercial Buildings.
ANSI/TIA/EIA 758, Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard.
ANSI/TIA/EIA 758-1 Addendum 1, OSP Fiber Optic Cabling Practices
TIA/EIA/IS-729, Technical Specifications for 100 Ohm Screened Twisted Pair Cabling
TIA/EIA TSB 72, Centralized Optical Fiber Cabling Guidelines.
TIA/EIA TSB 95, Additional Transmission Performance Guidelines for 4-Pair 100 Ohm Category 5 Cabling.