Special Characters and Symbols
How to type them using HTML and ASCII
We all need to insert special characters, or symbols, into our documents from time to time. Many just give up and type the word in (for example, 10 cents). But you should do it the right way - here's how for the most common symbols. For uncommon symbols, view the charts. The two most common character sets are:
- for text and word processor documents - hold down the Alt key and type the
code on your Keypad (with the numbers, at the right of your keyboard
- the numbers at the top of your keyboard will NOT WORK !!!), then release the Alt key)
HTML code - for web pages - paste the code into the HTML view of the web page, not the Normal view !!
HTML by default supports the character set ISO-8859-1 or Latin-1. Windows and virtually all Windows-based HTML editors use Windows-1252 which is basically the same as ISO-8859-1.
How to insert Symbols into your Document (Notepad, Word, HTML, etc.)
Here is how to create the few symbols that are more common. There is a full table of them Here.
In general, although HTML has different combinations than ASCII symbols - you can use the same ASCII code for HTML except you precede it with two characters: &#, and if the ASCII code has a leading zero, you drop it with HTML.
NOTE: the use of HTML "symbol names" (symbol shortcuts), such as &trade and © are not well supported across the browsers !!! Although this has gotten much more ubiquitous with the newer versions of browsers lately .
Common Symbols ( ™ SM © ¢ Ω – — ® ÷ )
NOTE: the "Alt" key is not part of ASCII - it is just included here to show how to enter that particular character on your keyboard
Trademark symbol ™ : ASCII Alt-0153 - HTML: ™ ("supposedly" &trade also work in HTML but it does not work for me)
symbol SM : no ASCII code. For
HTML just use "SM" with superscript
Registered Trademark Symbol ® : ASCII Alt-0174 - HTML ® OR ® (works)
NOTE: use of the Trademark, Service Mark, and Registered mark - anyone who claims rights in a mark may use the TM (trademark) or SM (service mark) designation with the mark to alert the public to the claim. The registration symbol, (R), may only be used when the mark is registered in the PTO. It is improper to use this symbol at any point before the registration issues.
Division Symbol ÷ : ASCII Alt-00F7
Copyright Symbol © : ASCII Alt-0169 - HTML © OR ©
Cent Symbol ¢ : ASCII Alt-0162 - HTML ¢
Ohms Symbol Ω : ASCII Alt-1002 - HTML Ϫ
Dashes - the three types
NOTE: some "fancy" fonts do not have the en dash or the em dash characters, but all of your basic fonts have them
dash (also called hyphen) - the normal dash from your keyboard
en-dash - the slightly longer dash
em-dash - the longest dash
Dash (Hyphen) - : ASCII Alt-45 - HTML - OR &ndash
Short Dash – (en-dash) : ASCII Alt-0150 - HTML – OR ("supposedly" &ndash also work in HTML but it does not work for me)
Long Dash — (em-dash) : ASCII Alt-0151 - HTML (4 ways):
–– (two successive short dashes)
― (do not use this - it is safest to use 8212)
&mdash ("supposedly" &mdash also work in HTML but it does not work for me)